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Preoperative Nursing Care
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Preoperative Nursing Care

Preoperative Nursing Care

The phrase perioperative nursing care may be familiar to you. Are you interested in studying the area but have no idea what it entails? This article will concentrate on everything entailing preoperative nursing care. You will learn things like obtaining an examination and tangible patient instruction, a pre-op list, and legal and moral considerations concerning preoperative nursing care.

What is preoperative nursing care?

This involves the care that is provided to a patient before getting to the surgical room. This care is aimed at increasing the chances of success of the surgery. The medical professional will determine the patient’s surgical readiness at the moment before the procedure. Any recommended tests should be included in this evaluation, but screening for conditions that aren’t suggested shouldn’t be. The individual’s body is ready for surgery right away, maybe by bathing with a disinfectant, and whenever practical, their concern is treated to ease their discomfort.

The choice to do surgery signals the start of the preoperative period. Pre-op nurses are responsible for determining the individual’s physical, psychological, and social conditions, preparing them for surgery, and carrying out nursing treatments. The pre-op phase concludes when a patient is taken to the surgical suite, and care is handed over to the OR nurse.

An outpatient surgical facility, an institution’s preadmission area, a physician’s office, a hospital’s inpatient unit, or over the phone are all possible places for the nurse to do the prior-to-surgery history and physical. To adopt measures that would enhance surgical outcomes, the nurse must recognize patients who are at risk for perioperative and postoperative problems.

Types of preoperative nursing care

  • Preoperative nursing care
  • Intraoperative nursing care
  • Postoperative nursing care

Personalized evaluations for patients during preoperative nursing care

  • The individual’s identification using two identification numbers, such as their full name and their date of birth
  • Patient’s psychological and physical state
  • The ability of the patient to carry out activities of daily living or tasks related to everyday living,
  • Status of the heart and lungs
  • The next skin
  • Dietary condition (the length of time the individual has been NPO)
  • Flexibility and mobility of the patient
  • Any prostheses or correcting devices that cause pain
  • Language difficulty, sensory disabilities, and spiritual/cultural requirements
  • Fear Previous surgical procedures and anesthetic knowledge
  • Allergies
  • Drug misuse, prescription drugs, herbal remedies, and dietary supplements

The Role of a Nurse during preoperative nursing care

The nurse should identify the patient’s current support network, which may include their spouse or partner, family, or friends. Patient and family education is the primary nursing intervention throughout the preoperative phase. Use every opportunity to inform the patient and reduce anxiety during the evaluation of the patient and surgical preparation.

As a nurse, give instructions on encouraging healing and avoiding issues after surgery. Patients can have some say over the course of events by having their specific learning requirements evaluated and addressed and participating in decisions about their treatment. Inform the individual about how to manage postoperative pain during the preoperative evaluation. Addressing their fear of pain before surgery is essential to reduce anxiety and give the patient greater control.

The nurse can review the individual’s information and ensure they are prepared for surgery using a pre-op checklist. The patient must take off all their attire and wear a hospital gown. Following hospital policy, jewelry is taken off. It is possible to locate and safeguard the patient’s items, such as eyeglasses, dentures, or prostheses. Verify the patient’s full name and date of birth on the ID band, the completion and signature of consent documents, the presence of x-rays, lab findings, an EKG on the chart, the possibility of an implant if necessary, and the presence of blood.

Universal Protocol for preoperative nursing care

The Universal Protocol is a required part of the Joint Commission’s quality standard that confirms the right patient belonging, technique, and surgical location to assure patient safety. At least two patient identification numbers are required to verify a patient’s identity, such as the person’s full name and birthdate. The patient must vocally consent to the surgery, and the medical professional must mark the operative site with the patient’s participation. The pre-op space is used for pre-procedure confirmation and site of surgery marking, while the operating room is used for the “timeout” right before the operation.

The pre-op nurse may administer premedication per the anesthesiologist’s preferences to reduce nervousness, provide anesthesia, alleviate discomfort and pain, and prevent or lessen nausea and vomiting, stomach volume and acidity, salivation, and gastric juice secretion. After premedication, keep the individual in bed with the sidebars raised to protect their safety.

Ethical issues considered in preoperative nursing care

Some moral and legal considerations must be made when somebody is having surgery. The process of providing the patient with information about the nature, implications, risks, advantages, and options of the recommended medical treatment is known as informed consent. The patient must sign a consent form before surgery to authorize the procedure.

What are the steps in preoperative preparation?

The doctor is legally required to give the patient sufficient details to weigh the hazards and benefits of the surgery, including the course of the illness and diagnosis, the type of surgery, and its advantages, disadvantages, and prediction without treatment. The individual’s full legal name, the doctor’s name, the precise procedure(s) to be carried out, the individual’s signature, the initials of a relative or conservator, the sign of a witness (often the nurse), and the day of the procedure must all be included in the written agreement.

The nurse’s job is to represent the patient’s interests. The nurse evaluates the patient’s decision-making capability, checks that the patient got the information required for informed approval, and clarifies any ambiguities. If a patient decides to withdraw informed permission and refuse a surgical operation, the nurse should encourage that decision.

Healthcare practitioners are expected to explain to patients their rights while making decisions about their medical care. If a person loses the ability to make medical choices, written instructions allow them to declare their options for care. The long-lasting power of a lawyer and a living will be two instances of advance directives. Patients express their preferences for medical care, lifesaving measures, and resuscitation techniques in a living will. The durable testamentary power of attorney specifies who has the right to make healthcare choices for the person treated in the event of incapacitation. The perioperative nurse must know the patient’s preferences for advance directives.

The preoperative nurse will record the patient care and instruction provided throughout the preoperative stage. As the nurse in the OR takes over the patient’s care, pertinent information will be shared with her.

Preoperative nursing diagnosis

What is involved in preoperative care? Possible nursing diagnoses during the preoperative stage include the following:

  • Anxiety about the surgical procedure (anesthesia, pain, and results)
  • Risk of inefficiency Therapeutic Direction Regiment about inadequate comprehension of preoperative procedures, treatments, and postoperative goals
  • Fear based on being separated from one’s circle of support and the imagined hazard of the surgical process
  • Lack of understanding of the surgical process

Diagnosis tests

Some diagnostic tests are carried out in the preoperative phase. This may include; studies of the blood, including the chemical profile, the enzyme alkaline phosphatase, c-reactive amino acids, sedimentation rate, and protein electrophoresis of serum by immunofixation

  • X-ray analyses
  • CT and MRI scans
  • Electrical diagnostic tests
  • Body scan
  • Endoscopies
  • Biopsies of tissue
  • Stool research
  • Study on urine

The above highlighted are significant physical findings that help further to explain the patient’s general state of health. The preoperative evaluation phase starts once it has been established that the patient is an appropriate match for surgery and has decided to proceed with the surgical procedure.

The preoperative examination aims to minimize the risks related to surgery, improve perioperative care, lower the cost of an operation, and speed up the patient’s recovery to full functionality.

Respecting cultural and spiritual beliefs

If the patient desires it, assist them in finding spiritual guidance; respect and uphold each patient’s religious convictions. Find out if the patient’s spiritual guide knows about the upcoming procedure.

Consider that some ethnic groups are not accustomed to openly expressing their sentiments when evaluating pain. People from specific cultural backgrounds sometimes avoid making eye contact directly with others; their absence of eye engagement is a show of respect rather than rejection or lack of interest.

When getting the individual’s history, please pay close attention to what they say. The proper interaction and interviewing techniques can help the healthcare professional gather priceless knowledge and insight. Be patient, considerate, and unhurried.

To sum up

Preoperative nursing care involves the care that a patient gets before any surgical procedures. As a nurse, you ensure the patient is comfortable before and after the surgery. You also have to implement plans to ensure the surgery is successful. Ensure you follow the moral and ethical principles during and after the surgical procedure.

If you need help writing preoperative nursing care assignments or any other nursing essay, contact expert writers at onlinenursingexams.com. We provide nursing assignment help to students at reasonable rates.

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